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Hồi sức Nội khoa: Nguyên lý chẩn đoán và quản lý ở người lớn, 5e

NNow completely revised to bring you up to date with the latest advances in the field, Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management in the Adult, 5th Edition, delivers expert, practical guidance on virtually any clinical scenario you may encounter in the ICU. Designed for intensivists, critical care and pulmonology residents, fellows, practicing physicians, and nurse practitioners, this highly regarded text is clinically focused and easy to reference. Led by Drs. Joseph Parrillo and Phillip Dellinger, the 5th Edition introduces numerous new authors who lend a fresh perspective and contribute their expertise to that of hundreds of top authorities in the field.

Table of contents :

Table of Contents

Now completely revised to bring you up to date with the latest advances in the field, Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management in the Adult, 5th Edition, delivers expert, practical guidance on virtually any clinical scenario you may encounter in the ICU. Designed for intensivists, critical care and pulmonology residents, fellows, practicing physicians, and nurse practitioners, this highly regarded text is clinically focused and easy to reference. Led by Drs. Joseph Parrillo and Phillip Dellinger, the 5th Edition introduces numerous new authors who lend a fresh perspective and contribute their expertise to that of hundreds of top authorities in the field. Table of contents : Front Matter……Page 1 Copyright Page……Page 2 Dedication……Page 3 Preface……Page 4 Contributors……Page 5 Myocardial Disease/Complications of Myocardial Infarction……Page 14 Valvular Disease……Page 15 Pericardial Effusion……Page 16 Chapter 38……Page 17 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation……Page 18 Defibrillation……Page 19 Extracorporeal CPR……Page 20 Reversible Causes……Page 21 Seizures……Page 23 Targeted Temperature Management……Page 24 Clinical Examination……Page 25 Selected References……Page 26 References……Page 28 Review Questions……Page 31 The Oral Cavity and Pharynx……Page 32 Assessing Adequacy of the Airway……Page 33 Providing an Adequate Inspired Oxygen Concentration……Page 34 Advanced Airway Adjuncts……Page 35 Tracheal Intubation……Page 36 Prolonged Ventilation Using a Sealed Tube in the Trachea……Page 37 The Difficult Airway……Page 38 Recognizing the Potentially Difficult Airway……Page 39 Managing the Difficult Airway……Page 40 Fiberoptic Intubation…….Page 42 Strategies to Improve First-Attempt Success at Intubation in Critical Illness……Page 43 Confirming Tube Position in the Trachea……Page 44 Tracheostomy……Page 45 Human Factors……Page 46 Common Problems in Airway Management……Page 47 Selected References……Page 48 References……Page 49 Review Questions……Page 52 Preload……Page 53 Static Indicators of Preload……Page 54 Dynamic Indicators of Preload (or Preload Responsiveness)……Page 55 Indicators of Afterload……Page 56 Static Indicators of Preload……Page 57 Hemodynamic Status and Blood Flow……Page 58 Dye/Indicator Dilution……Page 59 Echocardiography……Page 60 Blood Lactate……Page 61 Selected References……Page 62 References……Page 64 Review Questions……Page 65 Fluid Responsiveness……Page 66 Fluid Administration……Page 67 Pulmonary Artery Occlusion Pressure……Page 68 Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation……Page 70 Oxygen-Derived Variables……Page 71 Technical Limitations……Page 72 Applications: Diagnosis Versus Monitoring……Page 73 Pulmonary Artery Occlusion Pressure and Partial Occlusion……Page 74 Selected References……Page 75 References……Page 76 Review Questions……Page 77 Electrocardiographic Considerations……Page 78 Clinical Evaluation of AV Block……Page 79 Management of Bradycardia and Indications of Temporary Pacing……Page 80 Methods……Page 81 Risks……Page 82 Methods……Page 83 Sensitivity and Threshold Testing……Page 85 SN Dysfunction and AV Block……Page 86 Medication Side Effects……Page 87 After Myocardial Infarction……Page 88 Torsades de Pointes……Page 89 Obstructive Sleep Apnea……Page 90 Indications for Permanent Pacemaker Implantation……Page 91 Other Permanent Pacing Indications……Page 92 Bleeding and Hematoma……Page 93 Twiddler’s Syndrome……Page 95 Infection……Page 96 Intravenous Access……Page 97 Magnet Application……Page 98 Selected References……Page 99 References……Page 100 Review Questions……Page 104 Clinical Presentation……Page 105 Other Imaging Studies……Page 106 Catheter-Based Diagnosis……Page 107 Pericardiocentesis……Page 108 Post-Pericardial Drain……Page 109 Surgical Drainage of Pericardium……Page 110 Key Points……Page 111 Selected References……Page 112 References……Page 113 Review Questions……Page 114 Physiology……Page 115 Placement Removal and Troubleshooting……Page 116 Myocardial Ischemia and Revascularization……Page 120 Physiology……Page 121 Impella Devices……Page 122 Left-Sided Impellas……Page 124 TandemHeart……Page 127 ECMO Configurations (Table 7.3)……Page 130 Hemodynamics and Left Ventricular Venting Strategies (Table 7.4)……Page 132 Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock……Page 133 Selected References……Page 134 References……Page 136 Review Questions……Page 142 Basic Echocardiographic Principles……Page 144 Saline Solution Contrast……Page 145 Systolic Function……Page 147 Diastolic Dysfunction……Page 149 Ischemia/Infarction Including Complications……Page 151 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy……Page 152 Infiltrative/Restrictive Cardiomyopathy……Page 153 Assessment of RV Function……Page 154 Determining Valvular Function and Dysfunction……Page 155 Evaluation of Mitral, Tricuspid, and Aortic Regurgitation……Page 156 Evaluation of Aortic Stenosis……Page 157 Evaluation of Mitral Stenosis……Page 159 Evaluation of Prosthetic Valves……Page 161 Infective Endocarditis……Page 162 Pericardial Disease……Page 163 Aortic Disease……Page 167 Hemodynamic Assessment……Page 169 Stroke and Other Systemic Emboli……Page 170 Selected References……Page 171 References……Page 172 Review Questions……Page 175 History……Page 176 Basic Concepts……Page 177 Automatic Tube Compensation……Page 178 Indications for Mechanical Ventilation……Page 179 Mechanical Breath Generation……Page 180 Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation……Page 182 Stand-Alone Pressure Support Ventilation……Page 183 Airway Pressure Release Ventilation……Page 184 Effort-Adapted Modes of Mechanical Ventilation……Page 185 Pulse Oximetry……Page 186 Secretion Clearance……Page 187 Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury……Page 188 High-Flow Nasal Cannula: A Potential Alternative to Mechanical Ventilation……Page 189 Selected References……Page 190 References……Page 191 Review Questions……Page 196 Increased Work of Breathing……Page 197 Dynamic Hyperinflation (Air Trapping)……Page 198 Obesity and Airflow Obstruction……Page 199 Interactions of Pressure-Targeted Modes With Auto-PEEP……Page 200 Principles of Managing the Ventilated Patient With Severe Airflow Obstruction……Page 201 Postintubation Problems……Page 203 Support Phase Management……Page 204 PEEP and CPAP in Severe Airflow Obstruction……Page 205 Proportional Assist Ventilation……Page 206 Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal……Page 207 Preparations……Page 208 Key Points……Page 209 Selected References……Page 210 References……Page 211 Review Questions……Page 213 History……Page 214 Force-Bearing Structure of Lung Parenchyma……Page 215 Patient Characterization……Page 216 Severity of Lung Injury and Lung Recruitability……Page 217 Setting Tidal Volume……Page 218 Setting Positive End-Expiratory Pressure……Page 219 Setting Inspiratory-to-Expiratory Ratio……Page 221 Individualizing Mechanical Ventilation in Patients With ARDS……Page 222 Extracorporeal Support……Page 223 Key Points……Page 224 Selected References……Page 225 References……Page 226 Review Questions……Page 230 General Considerations……Page 231 Special Considerations: Hypoxemia……Page 232 Airway Obstruction and Atelectasis……Page 233 Diagnosis of Infection……Page 234 Lung Biopsy: Surgical, Transbronchial, and Cryobiopsy……Page 236 Complications and Death……Page 239 Selected References……Page 240 References……Page 242 Review Questions……Page 246 Limitations……Page 247 Clinical Applications……Page 249 Airway Occlusion Pressure……Page 250 Breathing Pattern……Page 251 Respiratory Mechanics……Page 252 Pressure-Volume Curves……Page 253 Intrinsic Positive End-Expiratory Pressure……Page 254 Airway Pressure Profile……Page 255 Flow-Volume Curves……Page 257 Selected References……Page 258 References……Page 259 Review Questions……Page 262 Epidemiology……Page 263 Timing……Page 264 Organization of Care and Safety During Bedside Tracheostomy……Page 265 Percutaneous (Box 14.3)……Page 266 Surgical……Page 267 Complications of Tracheostomy (Table 14.1)……Page 268 Selected References……Page 269 References……Page 271 Review Questions……Page 272 Anatomy and Physiology of the Pleural Space……Page 273 Pneumothorax……Page 274 Complicated Parapneumonic Effusions and Empyema……Page 275 Drainage Systems……Page 276 Optimal Chest Tube Size for Drainage……Page 277 Small-Bore Tube Thoracostomy……Page 279 Management of the Chest Tube and Troubleshooting……Page 280 Key Points……Page 282 Selected References……Page 283 References……Page 284 Review Questions……Page 286 Intracranial Pressure Monitoring……Page 287 Ventricular Catheter……Page 288 Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring……Page 289 Brain Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring……Page 290 Key Points……Page 291 Selected References……Page 292 References……Page 293 Review Questions……Page 296 Endoscopic Equipment……Page 297 Anesthesia……Page 298 Esophagogastroduodenoscopy……Page 299 Colonoscopy……Page 301 Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography……Page 302 Endoscopy in the Pregnant Patient……Page 303 Selected References……Page 304 References……Page 305 Review Questions……Page 308 Chapter Outline……Page 309 Performance of the CCE Examination……Page 310 Inferior Vena Cava Longitudinal View (Fig. 18.6, see Video 18.1)……Page 311 Lung Sliding……Page 312 Thoracic Ultrasonography Compared to Chest Radiography……Page 313 Evaluation for Pulmonary Embolism……Page 314 Equipment Requirements and Scanning Technique……Page 315 Equipment Requirements and Scanning Techniques……Page 316 Central Venous Access……Page 317 Guidance of Subclavian Venous Access……Page 318 Guidance of Pericardiocentesis……Page 319 Key Points……Page 320 Selected References……Page 321 References……Page 322 Review Questions……Page 324 Physiologic Principles……Page 325 Principles of Hemofiltration……Page 326 Patient Selection and Timing of Initiation……Page 327 Discontinuation of CRRT……Page 328 Continuous RRT Versus Intermittent RRT……Page 329 Continuous Hemodialysis Versus Continuous Hemofiltration……Page 330 CRRT for Volume Control……Page 331 Access……Page 332 Anticoagulation……Page 333 Complications and Troubleshooting……Page 334 Key Points……Page 335 Selected References……Page 336 References……Page 337 Review Questions……Page 339 Considerations in Managing Sedation, Analgesia, and NMB in the ICU……Page 340 Pain Management in the Intensive Care Unit……Page 341 Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia……Page 346 Sedation Management……Page 347 Sedative Drug Therapy……Page 348 Management of Sedation……Page 350 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents……Page 351 Monitoring……Page 352 Complications of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents……Page 354 Selected References……Page 355 References……Page 356 Review Questions……Page 361 Physiologic Changes in Critical Illness……Page 362 Absorption……Page 363 Distribution……Page 365 Clearance……Page 366 Half-Life……Page 368 Pharmacodynamics……Page 369 β-Lactams……Page 370 Vancomycin……Page 371 Assessing Renal Function……Page 373 Dosing in Renal Replacement Therapy……Page 374 Dosing in Hepatic Disease……Page 375 Sedative Dosing in Obesity……Page 376 Pharmacokinetic Changes in Pregnancy……Page 377 Hypothermia……Page 378 Pharmacogenetics……Page 379 Selected References……Page 380 References……Page 382 Review Questions……Page 387 History……Page 388 Definitions and Categorization of Shock……Page 389 Hypovolemic Shock……Page 390 Cardiogenic Shock……Page 391 Distributive Shock……Page 394 Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Shock……Page 397 Cardiac Output……Page 399 Graphic Analysis of Venous-Cardiac Interactions During Shock……Page 400 Microvascular Function in Shock……Page 402 Mechanisms of Cellular Injury in Shock……Page 404 Compensatory Responses to Shock……Page 398 Respiratory System……Page 410 Immune System……Page 411 Laboratory Studies……Page 412 Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring……Page 413 Oximetry……Page 414 Aims……Page 415 Resuscitation……Page 416 Conclusion……Page 419 Selected References……Page 420 References……Page 421 Review Questions……Page 431 History……Page 433 Etiology and Epidemiology……Page 434 Systemic Effects……Page 435 Reversible Myocardial Dysfunction……Page 436 Evaluation……Page 437 Initial Management……Page 438 Fibrinolytic Therapy……Page 439 Revascularization……Page 440 Free Wall Rupture……Page 441 Mechanical Support……Page 442 Selected References……Page 444 References……Page 445 Review Questions……Page 448 Definitions……Page 449 Epidemiology……Page 450 Role of the Immune System……Page 451 Role of Inflammation……Page 452 Microcirculatory and Mitochondrial Dysfunction……Page 453 Organ Dysfunction Scoring Systems……Page 454 Clinical Presentation……Page 456 Hypovolemia and Decreased Cardiac Filling……Page 457 Myocardial Dysfunction……Page 458 Overview and Management Guidelines……Page 459 Glucose Control……Page 460 Early Resuscitation and Hemodynamic Optimization……Page 461 Fluid Resuscitation……Page 463 Individual Vasoactive Agents……Page 464 Corticosteroids……Page 466 Summary……Page 467 E. Source Control……Page 468 M. Mechanical Ventilation……Page 469 T. Nutrition……Page 470 Selected References……Page 471 References……Page 472 Review Questions……Page 475 Physiology……Page 477 Pericardial Pressure……Page 478 Etiology……Page 479 Pulsus Paradoxus……Page 480 Cardiac and Chest Examination……Page 482 Echocardiography……Page 483 Overall Assessment……Page 484 Effusive Constrictive Disease……Page 485 Emergency Department……Page 486 Critical Care Units and Medical Wards……Page 487 Management……Page 488 Selected References……Page 489 References……Page 490 Review Questions……Page 492 Chapter Outline……Page 494 Initial Management……Page 495 Colloids……Page 496 Vasoactive Drugs……Page 498 Resuscitation Strategy and Goals……Page 499 Fluid Responsiveness……Page 500 Immune Mediator Cascades……Page 501 Genomics of Injury……Page 502 Recent Studies……Page 505 Fluid Therapy……Page 506 Hypertonic Saline Solution in Trauma……Page 507 Colloids in Trauma……Page 508 Blood Component Therapy……Page 509 Oxygen Delivery Parameters……Page 510 Lactate……Page 511 Clinical Strategies……Page 512 Clinical Studies……Page 513 Clinical Pathway—Early Resuscitation……Page 514 Management of Traumatic Shock in the ICU……Page 515 Risks of Early Red Blood Cell Transfusion……Page 518 Abdominal Compartment Syndrome……Page 519 Extremity Compartment Syndrome……Page 520 Selected References……Page 521 References……Page 522 Review Questions……Page 527 Definition, Epidemiology, and Staging of Heart Failure……Page 529 Diagnosis and Serum Natriuretic Peptides……Page 530 Prognosis in Acute Heart Failure……Page 533 Initial Evaluation and Therapy……Page 534 Evaluation for Etiology of Heart Failure Exacerbation……Page 537 Intravenous Diuretics……Page 538 Vasopressin Inhibitors……Page 539 Nesiritide (B-Naturetic Peptide)……Page 540 Inotropic Drugs (see Table 27.5)……Page 541 Considerations Regarding the Use of Inotropes and Vasopressors……Page 542 Oral Diuretic Therapy (Table 27.6)……Page 544 β-Blockers……Page 545 Angiotensin Receptor Blockers……Page 546 Aldosterone Antagonists……Page 547 Digoxin……Page 548 Acute Coronary Syndromes and Acute Heart Failure: Special Considerations……Page 549 Heart Failure With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (Diastolic Heart Failure)……Page 550 Myocarditis and Acute Heart Failure……Page 552 Device Therapy for Heart Failure and Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias: Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy……Page 553 Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy……Page 554 Temporary “Nondurable” Support……Page 556 Durable Mechanical Support……Page 557 Key Points……Page 559 Selected References……Page 561 References……Page 562 Review Questions……Page 567 Symptoms and Clinical Diagnosis……Page 568 Epinephrine……Page 569 Glucagon……Page 570 Selected References……Page 571 References……Page 572 Review Questions……Page 573 Definitions……Page 574 Diagnostic Approach……Page 578 Electrocardiogram……Page 579 Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiography……Page 580 Analgesia and Sedation……Page 582 Nitrates……Page 583 Inhibitors of the Platelet P2Y12 Receptor……Page 584 Anticoagulant Therapy……Page 586 Effect of Fibrinolysis on Survival……Page 587 Coronary Artery Patency After Fibrinolytic Therapy……Page 589 Patient Selection……Page 590 Distal Protection and Thrombectomy Devices……Page 591 Primary Percutaneous Intervention Versus Fibrinoltyic Therapy……Page 592 Door-to-Balloon Time…….Page 593 Rescue Percutaneous Coronary Intervention……Page 594 Platelet Glycoprotein Ilb/IIIa Receptor Antagonists……Page 595 β-Blockers……Page 596 Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers……Page 597 Antiarrhythmic Drugs……Page 598 Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery……Page 600 Pericarditis and Pericardial Tamponade……Page 601 Recurrent Ischemia or Infarction……Page 602 Congestive Heart Failure……Page 603 Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Infarction……Page 604 Ventricular Septal Rupture……Page 606 Definition……Page 607 Electrocardiogram……Page 608 Calcium Antagonists……Page 609 Aspirin……Page 610 Inhibitors of the Platelet P2Y12 Receptor……Page 611 Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonists……Page 612 Direct Thrombin Inhibitors……Page 613 Lipid-Lowering Therapy……Page 614 Invasive versus Conservative Management……Page 615 Long-Term Medical Therapy……Page 616 Key Points……Page 618 Selected References……Page 619 References……Page 620 Review Questions……Page 636 Pathophysiology……Page 639 Aortic Valve Sclerosis……Page 640 Noninvasive Evaluation……Page 642 Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis……Page 645 Balloon Valvuloplasty……Page 647 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement……Page 648 Pathophysiology……Page 651 Physical Examination……Page 652 Medical Management……Page 653 Aortic Valve Replacement……Page 654 Mitral Regurgitation……Page 655 Pathophysiology……Page 656 Cardiac Catheterization……Page 658 Mitral Valve Surgery……Page 659 Future Directions……Page 660 Pathophysiology……Page 661 Cardiac Catheterization……Page 662 Pathophysiology……Page 664 Noninvasive Evaluation……Page 665 Prosthetic Heart Valves……Page 666 Pathophysiology……Page 668 Medical Therapy……Page 669 Key Points……Page 671 Selected References……Page 672 References……Page 673 Review Questions……Page 680 Chapter Outline……Page 681 Treatment of Sinus Bradycardia……Page 682 AV Block……Page 683 Pathophysiologic Causes of AV Block……Page 685 Premature Atrial Contractions, Junctional Premature Contractions……Page 686 AV Reentrant Tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome……Page 687 Atrial Tachycardia……Page 690 Atrial Flutter……Page 691 Sinus Tachycardia……Page 693 Management of Regular Narrow Complex Supraventricular Tachycardia……Page 694 Chronic Treatment of Supraventricular Tachycardia……Page 695 Rhythm Control……Page 696 Stroke Prevention……Page 697 Direct Current Cardioversion……Page 698 Perioperative AF……Page 699 Antiarrhythmic Drugs for Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm……Page 701 Ventricular Arrhythmias……Page 702 Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia……Page 703 Ischemic Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia……Page 706 Sustained Polymorphic VT/VF……Page 707 Treatment of Polymorphic VT or VF……Page 708 VT/VF Storm……Page 709 Arrhythmogenic RV Dysplasia……Page 710 Treatment of Arrhythmogenic RV Dysplasia……Page 711 Brugada Syndrome……Page 712 Short-Coupled Torsades de Pointes……Page 713 Electrical Shocks……Page 714 Electrolyte, Endocrine, and Metabolic Abnormalities……Page 715 Acquired QT Prolongation……Page 716 Conclusions……Page 717 Key Points……Page 718 Selected References……Page 719 References……Page 720 Review Questions……Page 728 Introduction and Terminology……Page 729 Approach to Management……Page 730 How Much Should the Blood Pressure Be Lowered?……Page 731 Esmolol……Page 732 Nitroprusside……Page 733 Hypertensive Crisis in Cerebrovascular Accidents……Page 734 Postoperative Hypertension……Page 735 Selected References……Page 736 References……Page 737 Review Questions……Page 739 Risk Factors for Thoracic Aortic Dissection……Page 740 Pathophysiology……Page 741 Computed Tomography……Page 742 Echocardiography……Page 743 Specific Medications……Page 744 Ascending Aortic Dissections……Page 746 Outcomes and Prognosis……Page 747 Selected References……Page 748 References……Page 749 Review Questions……Page 751 Admission Criteria……Page 752 Staff……Page 753 Pain, Agitation, and Delirium……Page 754 Recovery From General Anesthesia……Page 755 Ambulation……Page 756 Prophylaxis……Page 757 Hemorrhage……Page 758 Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection/Wound Complications……Page 759 Acute Kidney Insufficiency……Page 760 Noncardiac Thoracic Surgery Care……Page 761 Abdominal Organ Transplantation……Page 762 Key Points……Page 763 Selected References……Page 764 References……Page 765 Review Questions……Page 769 Chapter Outline……Page 771 Fluid and Line Management……Page 772 Mediastinal Bleeding and Cardiac Tamponade……Page 773 Common Low–Cardiac Output Scenarios……Page 774 Atrial Fibrillation……Page 775 Shock……Page 776 Myocardial Dysfunction After Cardiopulmonary Bypass……Page 777 Right Ventricular Dysfunction……Page 778 Diaphragmatic Dysfunction……Page 779 Neurology……Page 780 Phrenic Nerve Injury……Page 781 Diabetes……Page 782 Renal……Page 783 Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia……Page 784 Gastrointestinal Bleeding……Page 785 Key Points……Page 786 Selected References……Page 787 References……Page 788 Review Questions……Page 790 Assessment of Oxygenation……Page 791 Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure……Page 793 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome……Page 794 Risk Factors……Page 795 Pathophysiology……Page 796 Mechanical Ventilation……Page 797 Strategies to Improve Oxygenation and Rescue Strategies……Page 799 Extracorporeal Life Support……Page 800 Drug Therapy for Prevention of ARDS……Page 801 Lung-Protection Strategy for Prevention of ARDS……Page 802 Summary……Page 803 Selected References……Page 804 Review Questions……Page 811 References……Page 805 Genetics and Pathophysiology……Page 813 Signs and Symptoms……Page 815 Inhaled Short-Acting β2-Selective Agonists: Albuterol, Levalbuterol, Salmeterol……Page 816 Anti-IgE Antibodies: Omalizumab……Page 817 Indications for Mechanical Ventilation……Page 818 The Future for Those With Life-Threatening Asthma……Page 819 Selected References……Page 820 References……Page 821 Review Questions……Page 824 Pathophysiology……Page 825 Clinical Manifestations……Page 826 Pulmonary Thromboembolism……Page 827 Oxygen……Page 828 Antibiotics……Page 829 Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation……Page 830 Weaning From Noninvasive Ventilation……Page 831 Extubation to Noninvasive Ventilation……Page 832 Key Points……Page 834 Selected References……Page 835 References……Page 836 Review Questions……Page 841 Decreased Respiratory Center Output……Page 843 Detection of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Critically Ill Patients……Page 844 Neuromuscular Disorders……Page 845 Malnutrition……Page 846 Ventilator-Associated Respiratory Muscle Dysfunction……Page 847 Sepsis-Associated Myopathy……Page 850 Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Paresis……Page 851 Acute Respiratory Acidosis…….Page 852 Decreased Oxygen Delivery……Page 855 Medications……Page 856 Respiratory Muscle Fatigue……Page 857 Increased Ventilatory Requirements……Page 859 Key Points……Page 860 Selected References……Page 861 References……Page 862 Review Questions……Page 868 Definitions……Page 871 Host Defense……Page 872 Etiologies……Page 873 Clinical and Radiologic……Page 874 Microbiologic Testing……Page 875 Site-of-Care Decision……Page 876 Empirical Antibiotics……Page 878 Corticosteroids……Page 879 Etiologies……Page 880 Microbiologic Diagnosis……Page 881 Empirical Antibiotic Therapy……Page 883 Acinetobacter species……Page 885 Duration of Therapy…….Page 886 Ventilator Management…….Page 887 Modified Endotracheal Tubes……Page 888 Enteral Nutrition Strategies……Page 889 Selected References……Page 890 References……Page 891 Review Questions……Page 896 Respiratory Mechanics……Page 897 Cardiovascular Performance……Page 898 Pitfalls in Use of Weaning-Predictor Tests……Page 899 Respiratory Frequency/Tidal Volume Ratio……Page 900 Pressure Support……Page 901 Extubation……Page 902 Selected References……Page 903 References……Page 904 Review Questions……Page 905 Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Intensive Care Unit Patients……Page 906 Deep Venous Thrombosis……Page 907 Hemodynamic Consequences……Page 909 Respiratory Consequences……Page 910 Arterial Blood Gas Measurement……Page 911 Ventilation-Perfusion Nuclear Scans……Page 912 Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Chest……Page 913 Clinical and Hemodynamic Parameters……Page 914 Electrocardiogram……Page 915 Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography……Page 916 D-Dimer……Page 917 Unfractionated and Low–Molecular-Weight Heparin……Page 918 Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia……Page 919 Role of Thrombolytic Therapy in Normotensive Submassive Pulmonary Embolism With Right Ventricular Dysfunction……Page 920 Role of Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Patients With Submassive Pulmonary Embolism With Right Ventricular Dysfunction……Page 921 Respiratory Support……Page 922 Pulmonary Embolectomy in Massive Pulmonary Embolism……Page 923 Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy……Page 924 Right-Sided Heart Thrombi……Page 925 Pulmonary Embolism Response Team……Page 926 Selected References……Page 929 References……Page 930 Review Questions……Page 936 Hemodynamic Classification of PH……Page 938 Pathology and Cellular Molecular Physiology of PH……Page 939 RV Failure……Page 942 General Management Principles……Page 943 Norepinephrine……Page 944 Optimizing Preload……Page 945 Prostanoids……Page 946 Novel Agents……Page 947 Rate and Rhythm Control……Page 948 Atrial Septostomy……Page 949 Selected References……Page 950 References……Page 952 Review Questions……Page 956 Bronchial Circulation……Page 957 Tuberculosis……Page 958 Lung Malignancy……Page 959 Cardiovascular Causes……Page 960 Immunologic Lung Disease……Page 961 Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis……Page 962 Arteriovenous Malformations……Page 963 Management……Page 964 Patient Positioning……Page 965 Bronchoscopy……Page 966 Bronchial Artery Embolization……Page 967 Other Therapies……Page 968 Selected References……Page 969 References……Page 970 Review Questions……Page 974 Emphysema-Like Changes……Page 975 Distal Airway Inflammation……Page 976 Pneumothorax in Drug Abusers……Page 977 Traumatic Iatrogenic Pneumothorax……Page 978 Diagnosis……Page 979 Management……Page 980 Pneumothorax Resulting From Nasogastric Feeding Tubes……Page 981 Tension Pneumothorax……Page 982 Radiographic Signs……Page 983 Differential Diagnosis: Conditions Mimicking Pneumothorax……Page 984 Removal of Air From Pleural Space……Page 985 Persistent Air Leak and Bronchopleural Fistula……Page 986 Pneumothorax in Patients With HIV Infection……Page 987 Key Points……Page 988 Selected References……Page 990 References……Page 991 Review Questions……Page 997 History……Page 998 Pulmonary Parenchymal Injury……Page 1000 Initial Prehospital Rescue……Page 1001 Airway Management……Page 1002 Fluid Resuscitation……Page 1003 Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication……Page 1005 Mechanical Ventilation……Page 1006 Experimental Treatments……Page 1007 Selected References……Page 1008 References……Page 1009 Review Questions……Page 1012 Definitions……Page 1013 Incidence……Page 1014 Profile and Secular Trends……Page 1015 Hospital Infection Control Programs……Page 1017 Risk Factors……Page 1018 Role of the Microbiology Laboratory……Page 1021 Infrastructure—Architectural, Environmental, and Staffing—Issues……Page 1022 Reliable Sterilization Procedures, Chemical Disinfectants, and Antiseptics……Page 1024 Hand Hygiene……Page 1025 Isolation Systems……Page 1027 Special Issues in the ICU……Page 1028 Antibiotic Stewardship……Page 1029 Clinical Features……Page 1031 Blood Cultures……Page 1032 Diagnosis of Infection With Implanted Long-Term Intravascular Devices……Page 1033 Incidence……Page 1034 At-Device Insertion……Page 1035 Insertion Site Care and IVD Maintenance……Page 1039 Novel Technology……Page 1040 Pathogenesis……Page 1041 Microbiology……Page 1042 Diagnosis……Page 1043 Prevention……Page 1044 Nonpharmacologic Preventive Measures……Page 1045 Pathogenesis……Page 1047 Prevention……Page 1048 Forces Driving Resistance in ICUs……Page 1049 Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance in the ICU……Page 1050 Selective Digestive Decontamination……Page 1052 Preemptive Barrier Isolation……Page 1053 Protection of Health Care Workers in the Intensive Care Unit……Page 1054 Approach to a Nosocomial Epidemic……Page 1055 General Precautions Against Biohazardous Exposure……Page 1059 Pertussis……Page 1060 Human Immunodeficiency Virus……Page 1061 Goals for the Future……Page 1058 Key Points……Page 1062 Selected References……Page 1063 References……Page 1064 Review Questions……Page 1080 A Clinical Dilemma……Page 1082 Mechanisms of Action and of Resistance……Page 1083 Enzymatic Degradation……Page 1085 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases……Page 1086 AmpC β-Lactamases (Type 1)……Page 1087 Carbapenemases……Page 1088 Efflux Pumps……Page 1089 Synergy……Page 1090 Prevention of the Emergence of Resistance……Page 1091 Penetration at the Site of Infection: Tissue-Targeted Therapy……Page 1092 Special Pharmacologic Properties……Page 1093 Unintended Consequences of Antibiotic Therapy……Page 1094 Right Time……Page 1095 Right Dose……Page 1096 Right Duration……Page 1098 Conclusions……Page 1099 Selected References……Page 1100 References……Page 1101 Review Questions……Page 1107 Amphotericin B and Its Lipid Formulations……Page 1108 Itraconazole……Page 1110 Echinocandins……Page 1112 Candidemia and Disseminated Candidiasis……Page 1113 The Intravenous Catheter in Patients With Candidemia……Page 1114 Other Forms of Invasive Candidiasis……Page 1115 Empirical Antifungal Therapy for the Febrile ICU Patient……Page 1116 Acyclovir, Famciclovir, and Valacyclovir……Page 1117 Cidofovir……Page 1118 Oseltamivir……Page 1119 Cytomegalovirus……Page 1120 Selected References……Page 1121 References……Page 1123 Review Questions……Page 1132 Innate Immunity……Page 1134 General Approach to Management of Patients With Altered Immune and Inflammatory Responses……Page 1135 Prevention of Infection and Preemptive Therapy……Page 1138 Treatment of Infections in Patients With Neutropenia……Page 1139 Solid Organ Transplant Recipients……Page 1142 Patients With HIV/AIDS……Page 1143 Management of Antiretroviral Drugs……Page 1144 Diagnosis of Opportunistic Infections……Page 1145 Pneumonia……Page 1146 Diarrhea……Page 1147 HIV Transmission in the Intensive Care Unit……Page 1148 Selected References……Page 1149 References……Page 1150 Review Questions……Page 1154 Overwhelming Infections of the Central Nervous System……Page 1155 Diagnostic Strategies and Early Management of Suspected Bacterial Meningitis……Page 1156 Complications of Bacterial Meningitis, Need for ICU Monitoring, and Outcome……Page 1159 Encephalitis……Page 1160 West Nile Virus Encephalitis……Page 1161 Spinal Epidural Abscess……Page 1162 Acute Infective Endocarditis……Page 1163 Device-Related Endovascular Infections……Page 1166 Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome……Page 1168 Tetanus……Page 1169 Serious Skin and Soft Tissue Infections……Page 1170 Vibrio Infections……Page 1171 Peritonitis……Page 1172 Intra-abdominal Abscess……Page 1173 Biliary Tract Infections……Page 1174 Ludwig’s Angina, Lateral Pharyngeal Space Infections, and Peritonsillar Abscess……Page 1175 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever……Page 1177 Malaria……Page 1178 Influenza……Page 1179 Tularemia……Page 1180 Selected References……Page 1181 References……Page 1182 Review Questions……Page 1186 Definition……Page 1188 Prerenal Acute Kidney Injury……Page 1190 Postrenal Acute Kidney Injury……Page 1191 Acute Glomerulonephritis……Page 1192 Intratubular Obstruction……Page 1193 Creatinine……Page 1194 Oligoanuria……Page 1195 Patient History and Physical Examination……Page 1196 Urinalysis and Urine Indices……Page 1198 Radiologic Imaging……Page 1199 Maintenance of Renal Perfusion……Page 1200 Avoidance of Nephrotoxicity……Page 1201 Prevention of Contrast Nephrotoxicity……Page 1202 Preventing, Monitoring, and Treating Complications……Page 1203 Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Disorders……Page 1204 Hematologic Complications: Anemia and Bleeding……Page 1205 Cardiovascular Complications……Page 1206 Medication Dosing Considerations……Page 1207 Modalities of Renal Replacement Therapy……Page 1208 Timing of Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy……Page 1209 Prognosis and Outcomes……Page 1210 Selected References……Page 1211 References……Page 1213 Review Questions……Page 1226 Diagnosis……Page 1228 Hypertension……Page 1229 Water……Page 1230 Metabolic Acidosis……Page 1231 End-Stage Renal Disease……Page 1232 Key Points……Page 1233 Selected References……Page 1234 References……Page 1236 Review Questions……Page 1240 Normal Acid-Base Physiology……Page 1241 Definition and Classification……Page 1242 Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders……Page 1244 Definition and Classification……Page 1245 Treatment……Page 1246 Regulation of External Potassium Balance……Page 1247 Abnormal Potassium Distribution……Page 1248 Refeeding……Page 1249 Inadequate Potassium Intake……Page 1250 Cardiac Effects……Page 1251 Evaluation of Chronic Hypokalemia……Page 1252 Calcium…….Page 1254 Chronic Hyperkalemia……Page 1255 Physiology of Water Homeostasis……Page 1256 Pathophysiology and Differential Diagnosis……Page 1257 Hypovolemic Hyponatremia……Page 1258 Management and Complications……Page 1259 Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations……Page 1260 Euvolemic Hypernatremia……Page 1261 Treatment……Page 1262 Calcium……Page 1263 Epidemiology……Page 1264 Redistribution……Page 1265 Primary Hyperparathyroidism……Page 1266 Treatment……Page 1267 Normal Magnesium Physiology……Page 1268 Renal Losses……Page 1269 Causes……Page 1270 Causes of Hypophosphatemia……Page 1271 Clinical Manifestations……Page 1272 Clinical Manifestations……Page 1273 Bibliography……Page 1274 References……Page 1275 Review Questions……Page 1282 Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology and Classification……Page 1284 Epidemiology……Page 1285 Diagnosis……Page 1286 Insulin……Page 1288 Bicarbonate……Page 1290 Epidemiology and Significance of Hyperglycemia……Page 1291 Synopsis of Trials of Glycemic Control……Page 1292 Subcutaneous Insulin Use in the Hospitalized Patient……Page 1293 Physiologic Response to Hypoglycemia……Page 1295 Hypoglycemia in Patients With Diabetes or Who Receive Insulin……Page 1296 Hypoglycemia in Patients Without Diabetes……Page 1297 Key Points……Page 1299 Selected References……Page 1300 References……Page 1301 Review Questions……Page 1304 Incidence and Prevalence……Page 1305 Cardiovascular Effects……Page 1306 Other Effects……Page 1307 Medications……Page 1308 Clinical Features……Page 1309 Serum Cortisol Level……Page 1310 Critical Illness–Related Corticosteroid Insufficiency……Page 1311 Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock……Page 1312 Key Points……Page 1313 Selected References……Page 1314 References……Page 1315 Review Questions……Page 1317 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis……Page 1318 Thyroid Hormone Transport and Metabolism……Page 1320 T3 and T4 Measurement……Page 1321 Thyroid Antibody Testing……Page 1322 Iodide……Page 1323 Phenytoin and Carbamazepine……Page 1324 Plasma Hormone Patterns……Page 1325 Prognosis……Page 1326 Etiologies of Hypothyroidism……Page 1327 Manifestations of Hypothyroidism……Page 1328 Diagnosis of Myxedema Coma……Page 1329 Emergency Treatment of Myxedema Coma……Page 1330 Etiologies of Thyrotoxicosis……Page 1331 Manifestations of Thyrotoxicosis……Page 1332 Diagnosis of Thyroid Storm……Page 1333 Emergency Treatment of Thyroid Storm……Page 1334 Key Points……Page 1337 Selected References……Page 1338 References……Page 1339 Review Questions……Page 1344 Consciousness and Its Clinical Spectrum……Page 1345 Pathophysiology of Impaired Consciousness……Page 1347 Assessment and Acute Management of Coma……Page 1348 Initial Assessment……Page 1349 Respiration/PEEP……Page 1350 Reversal of Drug Overdose……Page 1351 Thorough Physical Examination……Page 1352 Standardized Neurobehavioral Assessment……Page 1353 Conventional MRI……Page 1354 Positron Emission Tomography……Page 1355 Electrophysiology……Page 1356 Event-Related Potentials……Page 1357 Traumatic Etiologies of Coma……Page 1358 Coma After Cardiac Arrest (Anoxic Brain Injury)……Page 1359 Key Points……Page 1361 Selected References……Page 1362 References……Page 1363 Review Questions……Page 1367 Historical Perspective and Definitions……Page 1368 Clinical Evaluation of Coma and Prerequisites……Page 1369 Apnea……Page 1370 Pitfalls and Mimics……Page 1371 Accuracy of Confirmatory Tests……Page 1372 Recommendations for Confirmatory Testing……Page 1373 Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation……Page 1374 Key Points……Page 1375 Selected References……Page 1376 References……Page 1377 Review Questions……Page 1379 Overview……Page 1381 Thrombolysis in Stroke……Page 1382 Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy……Page 1386 Symptomatic Carotid Disease/Stenting……Page 1387 Anticoagulation in Stroke……Page 1388 Massive Hemispheric Cerebral Infarct……Page 1389 Critical Care Consultation……Page 1390 Selected References……Page 1391 References……Page 1392 Review Questions……Page 1396 Pathophysiology……Page 1397 Differential Diagnosis……Page 1398 Intravenous Immunoglobulin……Page 1399 Pathophysiology and Prognosis……Page 1400 Diagnosis……Page 1401 Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors……Page 1402 Thymectomy……Page 1403 Respiratory Failure……Page 1404 Pain and Sensory Disturbance……Page 1405 Selected References……Page 1406 References……Page 1407 Review Questions……Page 1411 Epidemiology……Page 1412 Nosology and Semiology……Page 1413 Pathophysiology……Page 1414 Manifestations of Status Epilepticus……Page 1416 The Patient Presenting With or Developing Status Epilepticus……Page 1417 The Intensive Care Unit Patient With New-Onset Seizures……Page 1418 Status Epilepticus……Page 1421 Barbiturates……Page 1422 Prognosis……Page 1423 Selected References……Page 1424 References……Page 1425 Review Questions……Page 1427 Incidence……Page 1428 Computed Tomography……Page 1429 Primary Head Injury……Page 1430 Skull Fractures……Page 1431 Epidural Hematoma……Page 1432 Subdural Hematoma……Page 1435 Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage……Page 1436 Intraparenchymal Contusions and Hematomas……Page 1437 Classification……Page 1440 Ballistics……Page 1441 Surgical Management……Page 1442 Course in the ICU……Page 1444 Basic Concepts……Page 1445 Blood Pressure……Page 1446 Cerebral Perfusion Pressure……Page 1447 Carbon Dioxide……Page 1448 Metabolism……Page 1449 Cerebral Edema……Page 1450 Hypertonic Saline Solution……Page 1451 Decompressive Craniectomy……Page 1452 Management of Intracranial Hypertension……Page 1453 Anticoagulation……Page 1454 Seizure Prophylaxis……Page 1455 Conclusions……Page 1456 Selected References……Page 1457 References……Page 1458 Review Questions……Page 1468 Epidemiology……Page 1469 Prehospital Evaluation……Page 1470 Lower Airway Injury: Smoke Inhalation……Page 1471 Secondary Survey……Page 1472 Fluid Resuscitation: The First 48 Hours (Phase II)……Page 1473 Colloids: Albumin or Plasma……Page 1474 Vitamin C……Page 1475 Resuscitation Morbidity……Page 1476 Extremity Compartment Syndrome……Page 1477 Surgical Management……Page 1478 Neurologic……Page 1479 Hemodynamic Support……Page 1480 Pulmonary……Page 1481 Gastrointestinal……Page 1482 Nutrition and Metabolism……Page 1483 Renal Replacement Therapy in Burn Patients……Page 1484 Infectious Complications……Page 1485 Other Infections……Page 1486 Selected References……Page 1487 References……Page 1488 Review Questions……Page 1493 Physical Examination……Page 1494 Laboratory Tests……Page 1495 Gastrointestinal Decontamination……Page 1496 Enhanced Elimination……Page 1497 Ethylene Glycol and Methanol……Page 1498 Acetaminophen……Page 1499 Opioids……Page 1500 β-Blockers……Page 1501 Calcium Channel Blockers……Page 1502 Cyanide……Page 1503 Methemoglobin Inducers……Page 1504 Cyclic Antidepressants……Page 1505 Lithium……Page 1506 Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate……Page 1507 Cocaine……Page 1508 Mephedrone/Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Bath Salts)……Page 1509 Key Points……Page 1510 Selected References……Page 1511 References……Page 1512 Review Questions……Page 1515 Epidemiology……Page 1516 Cerebral Effects……Page 1517 Respiratory Changes……Page 1518 Complete Blood Cell Count……Page 1519 Defibrillation…….Page 1520 Cardiopulmonary Bypass…….Page 1521 Thermoregulation……Page 1522 Diagnostic Approach……Page 1523 Supportive Measures……Page 1524 Pathogenesis……Page 1525 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome……Page 1526 Epidemiology……Page 1527 Clinical Presentation……Page 1528 Specific Treatment Requirements……Page 1529 Selected References……Page 1530 References……Page 1531 Review Questions……Page 1534 Donabedian Framework……Page 1536 The Joint Commission……Page 1537 Shewhart Model for Process Improvement……Page 1538 Deploying Rapid Response Teams……Page 1539 Daily ICU Patient Goals Assessment–Quality Rounds……Page 1540 Intensive Care Unit Staffing: Intensivist-Led Team Model……Page 1541 APACHE……Page 1542 Organ Dysfunction Scoring Systems……Page 1544 Summary and Conclusions……Page 1545 Selected References……Page 1546 References……Page 1547 Review Questions……Page 1550 What Is the Distinction Between Competency and Decisional Capacity?……Page 1551 Who Ultimately Decides When There Are Conflicts About the Goals of Care?……Page 1552 Family Preparation……Page 1553 What, Then, Is—or Should Be—the Goal of Using Sedatives and Analgesics in This Context?……Page 1554 Selected References……Page 1555 References……Page 1557 Review Questions……Page 1558 Overview……Page 1559 Pathophysiology……Page 1560 Neuroendocrine Hypothesis……Page 1561 Sedatives and Analgesic Agents Contributing to Delirium……Page 1562 Diagnosis……Page 1563 Primary Prevention and Nonpharmacologic Approaches……Page 1564 Pharmacologic Therapy……Page 1565 Definition and Diagnostic Criteria……Page 1569 Conceptual Explanations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Critical Illness……Page 1570 Long-Term Cognitive Impairment After Critical Illness……Page 1572 Key Points……Page 1573 Selected References……Page 1574 References……Page 1575 Review Questions……Page 1581 Attributes of an Effective ICU……Page 1582 Coordination of Critical Care Within Health Care Systems……Page 1583 Standardization……Page 1584 Administrative Principles That Appear Reliable and Effective……Page 1585 The Challenge of Clinical Research……Page 1586 Specific Education Issues……Page 1587 Selected References……Page 1588 References……Page 1589 Review Questions……Page 1590 Alcoholic Hepatitis……Page 1591 Supportive Management of ACLF in the ICU……Page 1592 Etiology……Page 1596 Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)……Page 1597 Viral Hepatitis……Page 1599 Acute Presentation of Autoimmune Hepatitis……Page 1600 Pregnancy-Induced Liver Disease……Page 1601 Budd-Chiari Syndrome……Page 1602 Hypoxic (Ischemic) Hepatitis……Page 1603 Initial Resuscitation and Emergency Care……Page 1604 Airway and Ventilation……Page 1606 Etiology……Page 1608 Predicting Intracranial Hypertension……Page 1609 Monitoring the Brain……Page 1610 General Management of Patients With Raised Intracranial Pressure……Page 1611 Seizures……Page 1612 When and Whom to Transplant……Page 1613 Outcome From Transplantation……Page 1617 Key Points……Page 1618 Selected References……Page 1619 References……Page 1620 Review Questions……Page 1626 Initial Evaluation and Resuscitation……Page 1628 History and Clinical Findings……Page 1629 Peptic Ulcer Disease……Page 1631 Bleeding Secondary to Portal Hypertension……Page 1632 Nonendoscopic Assessment……Page 1633 Pharmacotherapy……Page 1634 Angiographic Therapy……Page 1635 Endoscopic Therapy……Page 1636 Surgical Therapy……Page 1637 Prophylaxis……Page 1638 Differential Diagnosis……Page 1639 Colonoscopy……Page 1640 Angiography……Page 1641 Diagnostic Evaluation……Page 1642 Conclusion……Page 1643 Key Points……Page 1644 Selected References……Page 1645 References……Page 1646 Review Questions……Page 1650 Definitions and Terminology……Page 1651 Pathogenesis……Page 1652 Etiology and Risk Factors……Page 1653 Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis……Page 1654 Infection Prophylaxis……Page 1655 Management of the Late Complications of Severe Acute Pancreatitis……Page 1656 Infected Necrosis and Pancreatic Abscess……Page 1657 Long-Term Outcome and Quality of Life……Page 1658 Selected References……Page 1659 References……Page 1660 Review Questions……Page 1664 Mechanisms and General Management……Page 1665 Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia……Page 1666 Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia……Page 1667 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation……Page 1669 Vitamin K Deficiency……Page 1670 Factor V Inhibitor……Page 1671 Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis……Page 1672 Pentasaccharide……Page 1673 Direct Oral Factor Xa Inhibitors……Page 1674 Apixaban……Page 1676 Warfarin……Page 1678 Key Points……Page 1679 Selected References……Page 1680 References……Page 1681 Review Questions/Answers……Page 1684 Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells……Page 1685 Indications for RBC Transfusion……Page 1687 Platelets……Page 1688 Indications for Platelet Transfusion……Page 1689 Indications for Fresh Frozen Plasma……Page 1691 Adverse Effects of Blood Component Transfusion……Page 1692 Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions……Page 1693 Transfusion-Associated Graft-Versus-Host Disease……Page 1694 Retroviruses……Page 1695 Massive Transfusion……Page 1696 Necessary Transfusion of Incompatible Blood……Page 1697 Cell Salvage Technology……Page 1698 Selected References……Page 1699 References……Page 1700 Review Questions……Page 1704 Acute Respiratory Failure……Page 1705 Diagnostic Strategy and Management of ARF in Patients With Cancer……Page 1706 Pulmonary Tumor Embolism and Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis……Page 1707 Febrile Neutropenia……Page 1708 Hypercalcemia……Page 1709 Adrenal Failure……Page 1710 Leptomeningeal Metastases……Page 1711 Acute Kidney Injury……Page 1712 Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation……Page 1713 Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications……Page 1714 Triage of Cancer Patients for ICU Care……Page 1715 Palliative, Ethics, and End-of-Life Care Issues……Page 1716 Selected References……Page 1717 References……Page 1718 Review Questions……Page 1720 Physiologic Changes in Pregnancy……Page 1721 Nutrition……Page 1722 Radiologic Procedures and Fetal Risk……Page 1723 Airway Management……Page 1724 Preeclampsia……Page 1725 Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy……Page 1726 Peripartum Cardiomyopathy……Page 1727 Septic Shock……Page 1728 Cardiac Disease……Page 1729 Selected References……Page 1730 References……Page 1731 Review Questions……Page 1733 Starvation Versus Stress Metabolism……Page 1734 Fat Metabolism in Critical Illness……Page 1735 Calories……Page 1736 Fat……Page 1737 Route and Timing of Administration……Page 1738 Trophic Feeding……Page 1740 Immunomodulating Enteral Formulas……Page 1741 Nutritional Assessment and Monitoring……Page 1742 Complications of Enteral Nutrition Support……Page 1745 Metabolic Complications of Nutrition Support……Page 1746 Selected References……Page 1747 References……Page 1748 Review Questions……Page 1754

CHI TIẾT SÁCH____
Title: Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management in the Adult
Author(s): Joseph E. Parrillo, R. Phillip Dellinger
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2019 Edition: 5th Edition
Language: English Pages (biblio\tech): 1754\1754
ISBN: 9780323611619 ID: 2340107
Size: 132 MB Extension:pdf

Tải sách: Định dạng PDF – 1754 trang – 132 MB – GOOGLE DRIVE

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